Traditional set of musical instruments and instrumental music of Ukrainian Polissya. Photo of musical instruments
Traditional set of musical instruments and instrumental music of Ukrainian Polissya
Primordial syncretic ceremonial ritual cycles of folk music played mostly on primitive (mainly wind) instruments on the territory of Ukraine are represented most brightly in the zones of still well-preserved shepherd's culture of the Carpathians and Polissya. As musical and folklore observations against the background of the general are concerned, these except for philological processing of songs texts have not gone further than the analysis of rhythmical structure of the verse with individual attempts of understanding musical stylistic peculiarities of this truly sanctuary zone of ancient Ukrainian culture.
Musical ethnographical researches of the territory of Polissya, carried out by Ukrainian ethnomusicologists (A.Rubets, F.Kolessa, S.Lyudkevych, K.Kvitka, S.Grytsa, Ye.Yefremov, I.Klymenko) in cooperation with Polish (O.Kolberg, К. Моshynsky), Russian (Ye.Gippius), and Byelorussian (Z.Evald, Z.Mozheyko, H.Tavlay and others), provide sufficiently complete idea concerning characteristic features of the song and musical dialect of Polissya. Unfortunately, the scientific study of instrumental culture of the Polishchuks is still at its very beginning.
This multimedia publication aims at describing the present ethno-organologic situation, specifying the sources, level of preservation and research of instrumental music in Polissya, giving the reader and hearer a chance to hear and understand it in real.
The traditional set of musical instruments of the Ukrainian Polissya
The traditional set of musical instruments of the Polissya zone of Ukraine can be conventionally divided into three main groups: а) shepherd's instruments; b) instruments of rural wedding chapels; c) instruments set of epic singer and instrumental tradition (of kobza and lyre players). Peculiar is the fact, that just the Polissya instrumental practice is characterized by comparative balance in intensity of functioning of instruments of the said groups as compared to other regions of Ukraine, where the way of economy, geographical, economical conditions determine the character and measure of predominance of one group of folk musical instruments over another one (predominance of shepherd's instruments set in the Gutsul land, shepherd's and ensemble instruments in Boyko land, kobza instruments in Poltava land, Naddnipryanshchyna, Slobozhanshchyna etc.).
Among the archaeological data concerning the most ancient instruments found on the territory of Polissya there should be named the complex of instruments of mammoth bones dug out on the bank of the Desna river in the Mizynske settlement of Chernigiv land, experimentally reconstituted sounding of which is recorded on the gramophone record ( 7 ).
The most characteristic instrumental culture layer of localities with predomination of shepherd's form of economy, among which Polissya is also reckoned, is the widest set of wind instruments. Among these instruments the most collocated with shepherd's milieu ones are signal embouchure, more seldom reed instruments. Numerous data quoted in ethnographical literature indicate intensive functioning in Polissya of the long shepherd's trumpet, which, considering the trend of descriptions, should be classified as an embouchure instrument.
Trumpets of that kind as far back as at the end of the 20-th years functioned as signal instruments of Polissya shepherds (information by K.Kvitka, M.Teodorovytch, V.Moshkov, G.Stoyanov, F.Klymchuk, O.Oshurkevych) .
According to A.Gumenyuk, the length of such a wood trumpet of the embouchure type approximately equals to 1 m, while that of a metal one, according to O.Oshurkevych - to 40 cm.
Another type of Polissya shepherd's trumpets is a group of instruments made of bark of a young willow tree, lime tree, alder, bearwood, maple or elder. Those could be either embouchure or reed ones with plugged-in onefold (clarinet-like) pennywhistles. As follows from notations of tunes played on a shepherd's trumpet by T.Tsyba from Cholonets, done by F.Kolessa, those samples were performed exactly on such a trumpet, although the researcher gave no remarks on this point ( 2, P.193-194; 54-55). The gamut of the instrument, reconstructed after the notation of the said tune, should be defined as G-c-f (fis). However, it has to be observed, that the gamut of trumpets and horns made of bark of crumby wood species may notably change itself during a lasting period of time and due to the shrinking-up of these instruments when soaked and dried.
Two trumpets made by a craftsman-shepherd from the village of Velyka Glusha of Lyubeshivsky district in Volyn Oblast M.T.Plyasun (born in 1931) at the moment of production had the gamuts that at different moments of playing most often tended to the following tonal settings: а) fis-gis-a-h; б) ais-h-c1-dis1. At present both instruments, the process of making of which has been recorded on videotape, are kept in the funds of PNDL МЕ NMAU .
Such exemplars in the said locality are named "pastushy rig abik" . As no one of the persons asked could clear the derivation of the name, which is rather unusual for the Slavs, one may suggest, that this is the Polissya phonetic variant of the Byelorussian word "vabik" (4, P.2) which in Ukrainian sounds as "vabyk" (compare with the Guzul - "vabets'", Rus. - "manok"), i.e. instrument for "pryvablyuvannya" of birds and animals during hunting, as well as of livestock on pasture, when it has scattered about. The practice of using as a "vabets'" of free aerophones luska , or the ones made of birch bark etc. is known, in particular, also in Guzul land (information by M.Tymofiyiv).
Despite the highest credibility of this version, another one should be brought out as well: derivation from the gutturally accented pronunciation of the vowel "a" that comes after the consonant "b", which as if "fell out" in the process of sound-forming at the beginning of phonation when playing the instrument. Hence a version of derivation of the instrument's name from the syllable "ab" can be motivated. In literature wood shepherd's instruments of the "zhaleyka" type that have a local name "truba" and corneous clarinet-like shepherd's horns in Beresteyshchyna land (10, P.94, 100-101 ) are mentioned as well.
The sizes of Polissya shepherd's trumpets (horns) made of bark float in the range from 40-50 cm (according to O.Oshurkevych) to 1,7 m (according to I.Nazina). However, it is very possible that these data in individual cases concern the long wood shepherd's trumpets, more typical for central- and north-Byelorussian regions. However, K.V.Kvitka found the same "Polissya trembita" in 1898 near Gorodnya in Chernigiv land, which can mean that in the past it occurred in Polissya as well (8, P.259 ).
Polissya horns of natural animal horn , most often of bullock and more seldom - of cow, are also classified as signal instruments of the embouchure type. These, as well as the "abik" here described, predominated over that of wood. This fact can be proved by the tradition preserved up to the day present and by the records in literature as well.
These horns can be classified as embouchure ones only conventionally, because mainly there is no embouchure in them and the embouchure cup is set directly on the instrument's body. The length of such horns equals to about 27 cm, according to personal observations by B.C. Adamenko (born in 1924, village of Fedorivka of Polissya district in Kyiv land), the natural sounding of a horn from Fedorivka is in general restricted to one sound (d) that can be leveled down or up in the range of 1/8 or 1/4 of the tone by means of weakening or strengthening of lip tension of the ambushur (signals "Recollecting livestock in the forest" and "Something happened to the livestock"). Characteristic falling of the main tone of the horn for Ѕ of the tone is achieved by means of "zasurdynennya" of the instrument aperture with two fingers of the hand, which upholds it during the playing (signal "Recollecting livestock in the forest") . In 1997 in the village of Bochechky of Konotopsky District of Sumy Oblast double-aperture natural horns made both of horn of a cow and of a goat were found.
In addition to embouchure and non-embouchure natural horns of bark of various trees, in Volyn Polissya the horn of reed kind with a onefold pennywhistle of cane and five playing apertures ( 6, P.13, 19-22 ), typical for the territory of Russia and Byelorussia, is preserved.
Of the most primitive (the so called "pseudo instruments") up to the day present many free aerophones can be found here: birch bark, leaf of grass (in modern household these were often replaced with polyethylene film or plastic plate) and myrtle-like grebinets. And in the past K.Moshynsky found here "zhuzhalka" and "churynga" (compare with the all-Ukrainian "furkalo", "furkotalo"), toy instruments of shepherds' children. Here wide-spread also were reed pipes and pennywhistles made of stalks of young rye and dandelion and other children's wood and ceramic instruments like pennywhistles, which had mostly ritual repertoire of their own (29). An expedition to the village of Bochechky in Sumy land also put on record an instrument of reed group- "grayka na peryni" (artificer L.D.Nikolayenko, born in 1930).
Recently an instrument of reed group is being intensively used in Polissya - an accordion that is not traditional among the Polishchuks. In the so-called mixed instrumental chapels, where violinists have to coexist with accordionists, it is not rare that primo is performed by a violinist, but the sounding of "the menial instrument - accordion" (the phrase by F.Kolessa) is completely absorbed and "blocked" by sounding of the violin, dynamically more quiet and more soft in timbre. Traditional place of the violin as a leading melody instrument in such an ensemble is beyond any expectations: less honorable function is assigned to it at best - to soften in timbre the overpowering sounding of the accordion.
Of flute aerophones known are sopilka -like instruments that in Polissya have local names: "svystilka" or "svystyolka" (Volyn) and "dudka" (other zones of Polissya) . In Beresteyshchyna land under the name "svystyolka" ceramic pennywhistles with mostly threechords gamut in the range of quarta are known (10, P.59), and under the name "caryna" - ocarina-like "zozulkas " (ibidem, P.62 ).
Polissya "dudkas" and "svystilkas" are lengthwise closed (with a bottom) whistle-like folk flutes mostly made in two prevailing ways: splitting (fifes-"kolyanky" - Rivne land, "svystyolky" - Volyn) and twisting (fifes-"vykrutkas" - central-west and Volyn zones of Polissya). Known are as well children's whistle-like fifes of willow-tree, lime tree, sedge, alder, cane, birch bark. In Konotopsky District of Sumy land were found bottomless aperture "svystky" of elder played by blanking out the aperture with hands.
The technology of splitting and twisting, unknown in other regions of Ukraine, is typical exclusively for Polissya and quite seldom - for Byelorussia. Among "kolyankas" there are short primitive fifes that hardly allow to play melodies. One of such exemplars is a 19.5-cm long elder pennywhistle made by the artificer A.P.Plyasun (born in 1922). It is fastened together instead of bark circles with usual isolating band, has three play-apertures and when long water-soaked gives expressively fixed gamut of major triad with major second "appended" to it on top. The size of "kolyankas" exemplars from western Polissya from the collection of I.Klymenko is much larger. These are mostly six-aperture and give the gamut of one and a half octave of the very various gamut-tonal content.
A pine fife-"vykrutka", bought in the village of Galuziya of Manevytsky District in Volyn Oblast from I.O.Kulchytsky (born in 1925) has 6 apertures and an original structure of the whistle, which is foreign to other regional types of Ukrainian sopilkas: the sound producing slit is located here not at the bottom, but on top. It is separated from the rest of the bottom surface with a wood outshoot, carved out of its corpus, and while playing it enters the mouth cavity and, abutting against the teeth, acts as an additional retainer.
According to the fifer Petrynych (born in 1909, village of Mokhro in Beresteyshchyna land), a fife-"svystyol" always means spring, trinity, reaping, and after it reeds were played (10, P. 76). There is evidence, that in the past in Beresteyshchyna land whistle apertureless fifes (10, P. 84) and quills like Panpipe (ibidem, P. 140) were widespread.
From the group of percussions and idiophones in Polissya the wood bell "klyapaylo" in Pinshchyna land (10, P. 23), the fact of caroling with metal bells in Gomel land (ibidem, P. 24-25), the percussive-rhythmic instrument "bryazgotka" in Beresteyshchyna land (ibidem, P. 27), sharkhun-like idiophones "shalyastuns" in Pinshchyna land (ibidem, P. 29) and others were put on a record. Data of contemporary expeditions prove that the derkach clacker (local name "treshchotka") was used to warn about the fire, during wolf-hunting and caroling in Pinshchyna land, Volyn and other zones of Polissya (according to the information furnished by the artificer of folk instruments I. Sydorchuk from the town of Kovel in Volyn Oblast).
Along the entire territory of Polissya widely used is the one-membrane timbrel (all-Ukr. "reshitko") and the two-membranes drum of decreased size (Ukr. "bukhalo"), named by I. Nazina "Turkish". Rather seldom the two-membrane drum of natural size (comparing to that normally used in orchestras) occurs.
The history of using string instruments in Polissya to some extent can be associated with the archaeological finding near Grodno of a fid of a string instrument dated back to the XII century (11, P. 17), and with placing on record by K. Moshynsky of the primitive pinch bow-like one-string instrument - bandurka ( 11, P. 19).
Up to the day present the violin is used rather intensively on the entire territory of Polissya. Folk technology of its making by way of gouging of the bottom side (11, P.84) occurs in some places. Facts of intensive functioning of violin music in Polissya at the end of the XIX - beginning of the XX centuries were placed on record by K. Kvitka (8, P. 267-269), Ch. Petkevych (see - 12, P. 232-238), D.G. Bulgakovsky (13, P. 4-5).
The dulcimer, which is very characteristic of Byelorussia and many regions of Ukraine (Guzul land, Boyko land, Lemko land, Podillia, Naddnipryanshchyna), in the ethnographical zone of Polissya occurs only sporadically in Gomel land (11, P. 30) and Beresteyshchyna land, which seems to be an exception, probably motivated by strong Byelorussia influence rather than by forcible russification - in contrast to the story of the balalaika spreading in Poltava land and Slobozhanshchyna land.
Use of the mandolin and the guitar mostly in the intellectual environment should be qualified as a late phenomenon of little significance to the traditional sphere of folk instrumentalism. No wonder, that the balalaika as well as the mandolin with the guitar qualified by I. Nazina as "Byelorussian folk musical instruments" are not rare in the "oppositional" (as for tradition) compositions of the so-called "music with accordion", which within the conception of ethnical sound ideal of the Ukrainians (see 14) are viewed as inflowing and destroying autochthonic subethnical sound ideal of the Polishchuks.
Instrumental ensembles of traditional composition with a bass (Ukr. - "basolya" , Byelorus. - "basetlya", "basedlya") were found only on Ukrainian-Polissya lands of Pinshchyna and Beresteyshchyna (1, P.11, 114), which border upon Byelorussian ethnical territory. In the central part of Polissya ensembles with a bass either disappeared completely or were quite rare. However, chapels of two violins and a drum or more rarely a timbrel-reshitok desperately resist the said russificated compositions.
As for the kobza- and lire-players' set of instruments, there are many facts concerning the use of the kobza and bandura on the left-bank side of Polissya territory (15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21) and of the lire on the entire territory of Polissya (18, 20, 11, 22).
F. Kolessa, as known, was disturbed by the fact that he had not found any phonograms, sung by the kobza-players from Chernigiv land. Our contemporaries have to sorrow even more for the lack of phonograms and notations of famous singers of Chernigiv school of kobza- and bandura-players T. Parkhomenko, F. Tkachenko, M. Datsenko, lire-player Yosyp, bandura- and lire-players A. Beshko, I. Romanenko and others. To this day has survived only the tradition of kobza-playing notated and described by M.V.Lysenko from O. Veresay and lire-repertoire of A. Greben, the only record of which is kept in the funds of the Institute for Art Criticism, Folklore Study and Ethnology. We also have the author's records from the bandura-player I. Rachok, from accordionist that sings lire-repertoire from the village of Girnyky, hamlet of Brody of Kovel District in Volyn Oblast A.S.Danylyuk, born in 1931 (pseudonym in tradition - "blind Andriyan") and stykhivnycha from the village of Bilyn of the same District A.O.Ladan, born in 1935 (in tradition - "blind Nastya"), lire-players Ivan Vlasyuk and Kalistrat, notated by O. Sanin and V. Shevchuk.
This material shows that in the past there actively functioned in Polissya kobza- and bandura playing tradition that by its creative potential was equal to that of the Kharkiv-Poltava one, which was recorded more often. The lyre-playing tradition on the whole territory of Polissya was so strong that even the cruel persecutions of the totalitarian era could not completely destroy it but just drove it into deep underground.
Instrumental music of Ukrainian Polissya While ethno-organogical situation in Polissya can be described more or less precisely on the basis of written sources, the analysis of musical and stylistic peculiarities of instrumental music of the Ukrainian Polishchuks is far more problematic and first of all because of the lack of recorded "live" music that could be reasonably qualified as "traditional".
Sporadical studies by scientists-ethnoorganologists of the past (N. Pryvalov, H. Stoyanov, V.Moshkov, K.Kvitka) and by modern researchers of folk music instruments of the Polishchuks (ethnomusicologists - Y.Gippius, I.Nazina, Mykh. Lysenko-Dnistrovsky, linguist F.Klymchuk, local studies expert O.Oshurkevych), mainly concerning the very fact of existence of music instruments and describing them, did not study the style and structure of instrumental music. The only exceptions are analytical notes and researches on instrumental music of Polissya by Y.Gippius, mentioned in particular by I. Nazina. If added by the famous works by K.Kvitka "The study of lire-players' life revised", "Materials of fair repertoire and life of startsivstvo in Chernigiv land" by B.Lugovsky, 26 instrumental tunes in the newly published book by F. Kolessa - K.Moshynsky (2, P.174-194), about 60 tunes "from the Ukrainian side" in the collection by A. Gumenyuk (unfortunately, containing only ensemble dancing melodies) (see 9, P.39, 42, 47-52, 69-70, 75-77, 83, 123, 125, 127, 224-238, 252-253 etc.) and 6 examples notated by V. Kucheruk in the brochure by O. Oshurkevych (7, P.19-22), the general picture of functioning and studying of instrumental music of the Polishchuks in the past appears to be rather panoramic against the background of more than intensive fading of the tradition itself and active growth of interest to it from the side of experts and the general public.
Some records are kept in funds depository of scientific researching laboratories of Lviv and Kyiv conservatoires, other music educational universities and colleges, centers of folk creation in Lutsk, Lviv, Rivne, Zhytomyr, Chernigiv, Kyiv and in private and state phono-archives of Polissya zone in Byelorussia, Russia and Poland (see - 34. P. 27, Cap.-"ІМ" and "NМІ" ). Despite the actual unavailability of these archives for researchers, the materials kept there are of high scientific and artistic-cognitive value.
An attempt to define the so called "genre system" of folk instrumental music of Polissya, taking into consideration all the complications of the present state of the tradition, can be nevertheless successful, providing that the thoughts, estimations and systematisations known from literature will be critically rethought. For example, on the basis of the terse characteristics of genre and stylistic peculiarities of the Polyshchuks' music by I.Nazina and even more terse notes by F.Kolessa, as well as on the basis of phono-, video- and hand-written archives of notes available, the general outlines of it may be drawn, according to which traditional instrumental music by its genre-functional and genre-stylistic polarity can be classified as follows:
- signal noises and signal hunting and shepherd's tunes;
- signals and tunes, performed "for oneself" on shepherd's instruments: bugles, pipes, horns and fifes (svystilka, kolyanka and vykrutka);
- sound-imitative tunes and tunes-beckons that have lost their initial applied functions and are played mostly "for oneself" and "for listening to";
- sound-imitative illustrations of folk narratives and "key" musical-narrative pictures (mostly performed by violinists, more seldom by fifers);
- vocal-instrumental forms (singing Solo + violin, singing Solo + fife or svystilka, group singing + violin and so on), either timed to a specific ritual (visitation songs, caroling, wedding etc.), or not ("indoors", "outdoors", "for listening to" etc.);
- accompaniment to spiritual songs (in the ancient times, mostly accompanied by lire, in central and eastern Polissya - also accompanied by bandura and kobza as well);
- dance music with a rather ramified sub-genre structure of tunes and dances divided in Polissya into two proportionally balanced groups: а) autochthonic;
б) inflowing or domesticated dances.
Functional purpose of signals on wood embouchure pipes is motivated by ceremonial-ritual externals, particularly in magic rituals of agrarian and calendar cycle: the custom to trumpet during the period of spring sowing ("so that the rye would so trumpet", "so that the rye would twist itself into a trumpet") in order to blandish the malign forces when autumn colds come, on the Illya's day to herald the beginning of autumn and - much more seldom - to "summon spring" (see 6, P.5-8).
Notations of music performed on a clarinet-like horn from the Volyn village of Derevok shows disappearing of signal and magic-ritual functions and their replacement by later entertaining ("Wedding dance", "Regimental march", "Krutyak", 'Ternytsya", "Farewell to a recruit") and sound-imitative ("Imitation of the cock call") ones instead.
In general, all the primitive aerophones with an intonation-fixed height of the tone and archaic ceremonial-ritual ensemble tunes of octave-unison composition preserve the traditional instrumental style and sub-ethnical sound ideal of Polissya. Later vocal-instrumental compositions, sung to the violin and fife in the environment of "indoors" and "outdoors" music, are characterized by significant content of later (mostly tercet) intonations and foreign-ethnical influences that depreserve Polissya sub-ethnical style.
Among the samples of instrumental music of Polissya the most numerous is the stratum of traditional wedding tunes and marches, i.e. "Good day'" (the entire zone of Polissya), "Pokhoda", "Goodnight" (Volyn). Notable is as well the stratum of semantically and ritually marked wedding by-tunes and extremely ramified net of double-beat dances: gopak, kozachok, polka with autochthonic rhythm-tonal base, and inflowing ones: Polish, Russian, Byelorussian, Jewish etc.
"The patriarch" of local dance-instrumental culture - gopak - in a contemporary village of Polissya belongs already to the relict phenomena. Dances of kozachok-structure with the rhythmic-tonal lexis transformed following the pattern of the more contemporary polka: "Komarynsky", "Krutak", "Kozachok", "Rozkomarsky kozachok", "Kozak", "Ocheret", "Choboty", "Grechanyky", "Popud gaykom" etc. even now compete rather notably with the inrush of modern pop- and rock-culture. Still more effectively wedges into this process a group of inflowing dances, most famous among which are: Polish - krakowiak and oberek, Russian - "Barynya" and "Korobochka", Byelorussian "Lyavonikha", Jewish "Shyr", "Oy-ra", "Karapet" etc.
Brought to Polissya, in the opinion of F. Kolessa, from Podniprovya (23, P.54), these and many other dance tunes "grew" into the autochthonic tonal substratum of the said ceremonial-ritual group and generated original inter-genre quasi-suite forms that dissolve local tonal element and "average" it, leveling it with the "all-Ukrainian" style.
The dance genre, which most actively and effectively lives in contemporary Polissya, is polka. An approximate fable and topic list of this genre is as follows: "Dyedushka", "Babushka", "Verba", "Shabasuvka", "Ruzya", "Tsyganka", "Pchulka", "Dribnenka", "Subota", "Dovbeshka", "Gulyay, Gulyay, krasulya", "Arkhipova", "Mazurka", "Batkova", "Kabardynska". It shows both quantitative and tonal-stylistic and thematic trend of the typically Polish polka stylistics. Once domesticated from Europe but strongly assimilated by autochthonic tonal element, Polissya polka as well as local dances and inflowing waltz, foxtrot and tango keeps on fighting for a leading role in rural rest and recreational environment.
The problem of melo-geographical differences in the instrumental tradition of Ukrainian Polishchuky is yet less explored and cleared. The reason for that is apparently not only the lack of field material found, but also comparably wider than in other regions of Ukraine treatment of the phenomenon of Polissia culture itself. In the instrumental music this problem is yet more complicated. For example, although named by O. Kol’berg records of „od Kowla.. , Rуwnego.. do Owrucza“ contain rather wide, semantically ramified, quite manifold from the point of structure, facture, temp and rhythm material, tonally, truly melo-geographically they are still not enough to let to define musical-dialect peculiarities. The most demonstrative and comfortable for melo-geographical defining material of O.Kolberg is that contained in the famous band by him “Woіyс”. In that material the author presents not less diversified as for ethnographical definition tonally stratum of wedding instrumental melos. Mainly these are wedding ritual tunes, played on the violin Solo (or with ensemble, though О.Kol’berg gives the party of violin only), the base of which consists either of wedding-“ladkankovyy” songs of expressive Halytchyna origin and three-beat (probably of Polish origin) wedding-ceremonial songs, or Central and East Ukrainian intonations of kosatchok-tune and even of lyrical-song mood. It will be observed here, that the first (Volyn’-West-Polissia) stratum is spread mostly within the individual regional frames, while the second (Central-East-Ukrainian) covers practically entire Volyn’-Polissia territorial corpus and reminds besides the one by Kol’berg also of the material by K.Moshyns’kyy-F.Kolessa and I.Nazina from marginal Ukrainian-Byelorussian Polissia territories, as well as of Polissia samples from collections by A.Houmeniuk, O.Oshurkevytch and modern field records by the folklorists of younger generation: S.Okhrimtchuk, I.Fedun, I.Fetysov, M.Hi and other.
* * * Lacerated during the centuries by artificial (Byelorussian, Ukrainian and Russian) frontiers ethnographical territory has still preserved the most characterizing of the whole corpus of its culture signs. This applies in full to the traditional set of musical instruments and instrumental music. Among its prevailing features should be named:
1. Common for Ukrainian and Byelorussian traditions classification of instruments into shepherdly, recreative and kobza-lyreplaying spheres (except the kobza-players’ set of instruments outlying to Byelorussia).
2. Featuring the regions with predominating shepherdly economy trend of prevailing folk signal aerophones: embouchure, chalumeau and flute.
3. Relief defined and clearly lined out at the regional, sub-regional and local levels specifics of instruments making technology that is motivated by the natural conditions and household-keeping of Polishchuky (fifes-“vykroutky” of pine, fifes-“kolyanky” of maple, hazel-wood, bearwood, spring fifes of bark, horns of bark and natural animal horns etc.).
4. Predominance of magic-ritual ceremonialism with primitive signal set of instruments in the mild forest zones and with wood melodic aerophones in the deep forest zones.
5. Typical of the Ukrainian ethnos specificity of pandore and kobsa (on the left-bank Polissia) and of lire (on the entire ethnographical Polissia territory) the most significantly separates its main Ukrainian-Polissia corpus from the foreign-ethnical (Polish, Byelorussian, Russian).
6. The archaic tonally element: signal, unison, and octave-unison, is accented weaker comparable to the Carpathian region, but stronger than in East-South regions of Ukraine.
As peculiarities that differentiate Polissia instrumental tradition against other regional traditions of Ukraine, Belarus’, Russia, and Poland, but draw it together with the general Ukrainian substratum are to be mentioned the following:
- preserving of the form, construction, technology of making, ergonomic measures, tune, ways of sound-making and instrumentation comparing to other regions of Ukraine and Belarus’;
- the most clearly represented in Polissia tendency of instrumental tradition to preservation of archaic types and forms of folk instrumentalism (shepherd’s set of instruments, lire-player tradition, traditional violin culture);
- typologically most characterizing of Polissia composition of band music ensembles (violin, violin – “second” and a drum) differs significantly from the most wide-spread in Ukraine and Belarus’ traditional compositions with “basolya” and cymbals;
- organically balanced functioning of the folk set of instruments of various spheres of living: а) shepherd’s; b) lire-player’s; в) rest and entertaining. The set of instruments of the first two groups is preserving and integrating, and that of the third one – de-preserving and de-integrating factor in the process of self-identification of the musical culture of Polishchuky;
- clear inclination of the instrumental melos of the West-Polissia zone to the tonally modus of the local environment, while that of the Central and East-Polissia – to capture the whole Volyn’-Polissia corpus.
* * *
Whatever important the named signs of living of the folk set of instruments in Podillia shall seem, the most peculiar features of the regional instrumental style undoubtedly are differences encoded in the tonally structure of the music itself played on the folk music instruments here described. Set of repertoire placed on record, its’ stylistic trend and perfect folk high-professional performance indicate existence in Polissia, besides the depth primordial-syncretic instrumental culture of the shepherdly environment, of rather latterly, but yet original and peculiar ensemble vocal, instrumental and dance tradition as well and relict centres of lyre-poetical existence.
1. A derkach. Artificer I.Sydorchuk (born in 1953), town of Kovel in Volyn oblast. (Funds of the National Musical Academy of Ukraine).
2. A fife -"vykrutka". Rivne land. Materials by I.V.Klymenko. (Funds of the National Musical Academy of Ukraine).
3. A fife - "kolyanka". Rivne land. Materials by I.V.Klymenko. (Funds of the National Musical Academy of Ukraine).
4. A metal bell. Village of Skulyn in Kovelsky district of Volyn oblast. (Funds of the National Musical Academy of Ukraine).
5. A fife - "kolyanka". Rivne land. Materials by I.V.Klymenko. (Funds of the National Musical Academy of Ukraine).
6. A shepherd's horn made of cow horn. Artificer Adamenko B.S. (born in 1924). Village of Fedorivka in Polisky district of Kyiv oblast.
7. A shepherd's horn "abik". Artificer Plyasun M.T. (born in 1931). Village of Velyka Glusha in Lyubeshivsky district of Volyn oblast (Funds of the National Musical Academy of Ukraine).
8. A Drum. Village of Rubezhivka in Kyyevo-Svyatoshynsky district of Kyiv oblast. (Funds of the National Musical Academy of Ukraine).
9. "Svystok" - a whistle. Artificer Nikolayenko L.D. (born in 1930). Village of Bochechky in Konotopsky district of Sumy oblast (Funds of the National Musical Academy of Ukraine).
10. "Grayka na peryni" Artificer Nikolayenko L.D. (born in 1930). Village of Bochechky in Konotopsky district of Sumy oblast (Funds of the National Musical Academy of Ukraine).
11. "Furkalo" ("furkotalo"). Artificer I.Sydorchuk (born in 1953). Town of Kovel in Volyn oblast. (Funds of the National Musical Academy of Ukraine).
12. A noisy bracelet made of a mammoth tusk. - Materials of the Mezynsky musical complex.
13. Musical percussion made of a mammoth tusk. - Materials of the Mezynsky musical complex.
14. Musical rattles made of a mammoth rib. - Materials of the Mezynsky musical complex.
15. A tin shepherd's trumpet. Village of Kutriv in Gorokhivsky district of Volyn oblast. O. Oshurkevych "The pipes are blown". - Lutsk, 1993.
16. Ya.P.Sychyk is playing a shepherd's trumpet. Village of Obenyzhychi in Turiysky district of Volyn oblast. 1983. O. Oshurkevych "The pipes are blown". - Lutsk, 1993.
17. A bandurka. I.D.Nazina "Byelorussian folk instruments". Minsk, 1982.
18. An ancient Polissya violin. I.D.Nazina "Byelorussian folk instruments". Minsk, 1982.
19. A basetlya. I.D.Nazina "Byelorussian folk instruments". Minsk, 1982.
20. N.I.Sokhanchuk is playing. I.D.Nazina "Byelorussian folk instruments". Minsk, 1982.
List of reading:
1. Polesye. Material culture. — К., 1988.
2. Musical folklore of Polissia noted by F. Kolessa and K. Moshyns’kyy.-К., 1995.
3. Byelorussian folk songs. — M.-L., 1941.
4. Byelorussian folk instrumental music. – Phonorecords, red. and systematization of playing, preface, art. and scientific comment. By I. Dz. Nazina. - Mn., 1989.
5. Louhovs’kyy B. Materials of the fair repertoire and everyday of startsivstvo in the West Tchernihivshchyna // Rodovid. - 1993.- №6. – P.83-120.
6. Oshurkevytch O. The pipes are blown. – Louts’k, 1993.
7. Bibikov А.С. The Ancient musical complex of mammoth-bones. Essay on material and spiritual culture of paleolitical man. - К., 1981.
8. Kvitka К.V. About the study of Ukrainian instrumental music // Selected writings. - Cap.2. – P.251-278.
9. Instrumental music. – Compiled, preface and comments by А.І.Houmeniuk. – К., 1972.
10. Nazina I.D. Byelorussian folk musical instruments: self-sounding, percussion, reed. - Mn.,1979.
11. Nazina I.D. Byelorussian folk instruments: Strings. - Mn.,1982.
12. Pietkiewicz Cz. Polesie Rzeczyckie.- in 2 cz. – Pietkiewicz Cz. Kultura duchowa Polesia Rzeczyckiego. – Warszawa, 1938.
13. Boulgakovskyy D.G. Pintchuki. – S-pb., 1890.
14. Hi M. Ethnic ideal of sound as a criterion of defining autochtonality of the musical instrumental style // Actual trends in renewal and development of the folk instrumental art in Ukraine. - К., 1995 .- P.84-88.
15. Lysenko M.V. Characteristics of musical peculiarities of the folk duma and songs played by the kobzar’ Veresay. – К., 1978.
16. Kvitka K.V. Selected articles. - Cap.1. - К.,1985; Cap.2. - К.,1986.
17. Houmeniuk А.І. Ukrainian folk musical instruments. - К.,1967.
18. Kolessa F.М. Melodies of Ukrainian folk duma. - К.,1969.
19. Kyrdan S.Оmel’tchenko А. Folk singers-musicians in Ukraine. - К.,1980.
20. Lavrov F. Kobzars. - К.,1980.
21. Psherembs’kyy Zbign’ev Yezhy. Corb lyre in … // Rodovid.-1995.cap.11. - P.43-56.
22. Kvitka К.V. About the study of living of lyre-players.- К.,1926.
23. Sydorov V. Quail-pipe – a musical instrument from the Neolithic era // Folk musical instruments and instrumental music. - cap.1. - М., 1987. – P.157-163.
24. Rak V.V. The nature of the folk primitive and its poetics // The second Hontchar readings. - К., 1995. - P.28-29.
25. Sаbаn L. Traditional sound toy of Volyn’ and Polissia // Traditional folk musical culture of the East Volyn’ and West polissia. – L’viv, 1997.
26. Fetysov Illya. The problem of inflowings into the instrumental folklore of the West Polissia revisited// Folk music of Volyn’ – Kremenets’, 1998. - P. 47-52.
27. Matsievskyy I.V. Musical instruments of Pidlyashshia // Materials to the encyclopaedia of musical instruments of the world nations.- Issue 1.- S-Pb., 1998. - P. 104-133.
28. Matsievskyy Ihor. Genre grouping in the traditional music. – L’viv, 2000.
29. Bevyenko S.P. Ukrainian dialectology. – К., 1980.
30. Kolberg Oskar. Woіyс. Obrzкdy, melodye, pieњni.- Krakуw, 1907.
31. Hi Mikhaylo. Traditional set of musical instruments of Polissia (to the problem of the primitive in music) // Rodovid. - 1997. - Cap. 16. - P.104-113.
32. Arkoushyn Hryhoriy. Influence of dialect environment upon the Argo of beggars in Volyn’ // Polissia: Language, culture, history. - К., 1996. - P. 94-97.
33. Omelyashko Rostyslav. Conceptual basics and organization of saving and preserving of the ethnic cultural heritage of Polissia // Polissia: Language, culture, history. - К., 1996. - P.9-27.